Teaching Eliza Orzeszkowa botany

When we discussed Eliza Orzeszkowa’s On the Niemen, Basia mentioned that her great-grandparents were friends of the author. We are grateful to her for sharing the photographs below.

These show Klemens and Kazimiera Kruszewski, her great-grandparents; a photograph sent to them by Orzeszkowa; Jadwiga Ostromęcka, Kazimiera’s sister, with Irena Kruszewska (Basia’s grandmother). Jadwiga’s memoirs contain an account of her relationship with Orzeszkowa and other important people. 

An entry on Klemens Kruszewski from a Polish regional encyclopedia gives some further background.

Kruszewski, Klemens (1858-1945)


Forestry engineer, graduate of the Puławski Institute.


He worked in the Bialowieza Forest at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. He was the deputy governor of the Forest at the time of Aleksander D. Kołokolcew. In 1897 he was given the task of completing the redevelopment of the Forest, led earlier by Edward E. Wallenburger.

Kruszewski lived in Białowieża with his wife, Kazimiera of Ostrołęckich. His wife’s sister, Jadwiga, a teacher, was friends with the writer Eliza Orzeszkowa. The Kruszewskis got to know the writer through Jadwiga and several times, from 1898, invited her to their home in Białowieża. Unfortunately, their home does not exist anymore (it was located in today’s Palace Park).


The Kruszewscy’s friendship was extremely valuable in developing the writer’s botanical knowledge. Klemens Kruszewski introduced the writer to the world of nature of the Białowieża Forest. She herself wrote in a letter dated August 2, 1898: “… I do not remember other such valuable, comparable occasions in my life as the two botanical trips with Mr. Kruszewski. They were long and demonstrative lessons that I could use thanks to my previous botanical amateurism … “.


Klemens Kruszewski also showed other writers around the Forest – Wacław Sieroszewski, who visited Białowieża in July 1898 and Maria Konopnicka in August 1899. He was also involved in preparatory work for the visits of Tsar Nicholas II to Bialowieza in 1897 and 1900.

Kruszewski Klemens (1858-1945)
Inżynier leśnictwa, absolwent Instytutu Puławskiego.
W Puszczy Białowieskiej pracował na przełomie XIX i XX wieku. Pełnił funkcję zastępcy zarządzającego Puszczą Białowieską, którym wówczas był Aleksander D. Kołokolcew. W 1897 roku otrzymał zadanie dokończenia prac urządzeniowych w Puszczy, prowadzonych wcześniej przez Edwarda E. Wallenburgera. Niestety K. W. Kruszewski również nie doprowadził ich do końca, choć był wybitnym fachowcem w sprawach leśnych. Puszcza Białowieska w pierwszych latach XX wieku uważana była formalnie za nie urządzoną.

  K. W. Kruszewski mieszkał w Białowieży wraz z żoną, Kazimierą z Ostrołęckich. Siostra żony, Jadwiga, która była nauczycielką, przyjaźniła się z pisarką Elizą Orzeszkową. Kruszewscy właśnie poprzez Jadwigę poznali pisarkę i kilkakrotnie, poczynając od 1898 roku, zapraszali ją do swojego domu w Białowieży. Dom ich, niestety, już nie istnieje, znajdował się na terenie dzisiejszego Parku Pałacowego.

  Znajomość Orzeszkowej z Kruszewskimi była niezwykle cenna dla rozwoju wiedzy botanicznej pisarki. W świat przyrody Puszczy Białowieskiej pisarkę wprowadzał Klemen Kruszewski. Ona sama pisała w liście z 2 sierpnia 1898 roku: „…Mało pamiętam w życiu chwil tak zajmujących, jak dwie odbyte z p. Kruszewskim wycieczki botaniczne. Były to długie i poglądowe lekcje, z których korzystać mogłam dzięki uprzedniemu amatorstwu botanicznemu…”.  

Klemens Kruszewski oprowadzał po Puszczy także innych pisarzy – Wacława Sieroszewskiego, który odwiedził Białowieżę w lipcu 1898 roku i Marię Konopnicką, goszczącą u nich w sierpniu 1899 roku. Zaangażowany był także w prace przygotowawcze do przyjęcia w Białowieży cara Mikołaja II w 1897 i 1900 roku. (oprac. Piotr Bajko)

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Zbigniew Herbert in Scotland, 1963

Herbert Collected Holy Iona

When last year we read Zbigniew Herbert’s Collected Poems 1956–1998 I came across a single reference to Scotland, in the poem ‘The Prayer of the Traveler Mr. Cogito’ or, to give it its Polish title, ‘Modlitwa Pana Cogito – podróżnika’. Here is the relevant section in the Polish original, followed by Alissa Valles’s translation from Collected Poems.

a także Miss Helen z mglistej wysepki Mull na Hebrydach za to że przyjęła mnie po grecku i prosiła żeby w nocy zostawić w oknie wychodzącym na Holy Iona zapaloną lampę aby światła ziemi pozdrawiały się

and Miss Helen of the foggy island of Mull in the Hebrides for offering Greek hospitality and asking me to leave a lamp lit at night in the window facing Holy Iona so that the lights of earth would greet each other

The poem is taken from Herbert’s 1983 collection Raport z oblężonego Miasta / Report from a Besieged City. I was curious to know more about the time he spent in Scotland, which was in fact twenty years before this collection appeared, in autumn 1963. According to Andrzej Franaszek’s 2018 biography of Herbert, using public transport Herbert travelled north from London, stopping in Leeds, York and Durham before arriving in Scotland, where he visited Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Inverness, Oban, Mull and Glasgow, before returning via Carlisle to London.

Franaszek quotes from a postcard Herbert sent from Edinburgh on 18 October:

Wdrapałem się na górę koło Edynburga i oczywiście spadłem trochę (niegroźnie). Tak trzeba. Ziemio ty moja szkocka ukochana! Jutro jadę, ale dobrze nie wiem dokąd. Dziś w nocy narada sztabu z mapą. Jestem bardzo szczęśliwy, żeście mnie wypchnęli w świat. (…) Przede mną góry i skały, kozice i georginie. Naprzód! Hej!!!

I scrambled my way onto a mountain near Edinburgh and I fell down a little (not dangerously). Maybe a good thing. My beloved Scottish earth! I am leaving tomorrow, even though I’m not sure where I’m going. Tonight there will be a conference of the High Command over the map. I’m very glad that you pushed me out into the world. (…) Ahead of me mountains and cliffs, mountain goats and dahlias. Onwards! Hey!!!

In another postcard, sent from Inverness, he described his mixed feelings about the country: he was ‘exhausted but happy, head over heels in love with Scotland; its beauty exhilarates the tourist. But life without sex… one has to go back.’

He returned via the west coast and, finding himself in Oban, decided to cross to the nearby Isle of Mull and from cross there to Iona or, as he consistently called it, using the English adjective, Holy Iona. ‘Holy Iona, czyli kartka z podróży’ (‘Holy Iona, or a page of travel’) was written in 1966 for the West German radio station WDR, and published posthumously in the collection Mistrz z Delft (2008). Of his perspective of islands, he wrote:

Wyspy nie należą do krajobrazu mego dzieciństwa. Urodziłem się w środkowej Europie, w połowie drogi między Morzem Bałtyckim a Czarnym. Pejzaż mojej młodości to podlwowskie okolice: jary i łagodne pagórki porośnięte sosną, na której najpiękniej kwitnie pierwszy sypki śnieg. Morze było tam czymś niewyobrażalnym, a wyspy miały posmak baśni.

Islands were not part of the landscape of my childhood. I was born in Central Europe, halfway between the Baltic and the Black Sea. The landscape of my youth was the area near Lwów, crevices and gentles hills covered in pine on which the first dry snow bloomed beautifully. The sea was something unimaginable there, and islands had a scent of fairytales.

The crossing to Iona had something otherwordly about it. It was 29 October, his birthday, and the ferry was no longer sailing. The landlady of his B&B at Fionnphort phoned a local fisherman, who agreed to take Herbert on the short crossing. In his radio talk he described their meeting-place:

Zimny, wilgotny, siwy ranek. Stoję w pobliżu jetty, która jest po prostu betonową ścieżką wchodzącą w morze. Ocean jest wzburzony, wysokie fale rozbijają się na skałach urwistego brzegu. Nagle z mgły wyłania się mała łódka rybacka płynąca w moim kierunku. Było to jak podanie ręki marzeniu.

A cold, damp, gray morning. I am standing near a jetty, which is just a concrete path going into the sea… which was stormy, high waves crashing against a rocky coast. A small open boat appeared from out of the mist; it was like extending your hand to a dream.

Once on Iona, Herbert explored the recently rebuilt abbey complex. He was particularly struck by his encounter with a sculpture, Descent of the Spirit’, by the Lithuanian-born Jewish sculptor Jacques (Jacob) Lipschitz (1891–1973), who fled France for the USA in 1940.

williammarnochionaabbey2008
Photo: William Marnoch, Iona Abbey, 2008

Its inscription, in French, reads:

Jacob Lipchitz juif fidéle à la fonde ses ancêtres a fait cette vierge pour la bonne entente des hommes sur la terre afin que l’esprit régne

Jacob Lipschitz a Jew faithful to the heritage of his ancestors made this virgin for the accord of men on earth so the spirit might reign

Herbert, who had witnessed the destruction of Polish Jewry during the Second World War, appreciated the paradox of recovering signs of community in this, to him, remote place. He expressed gratitude to ‘the Jewish artist who had heard so many words of hatred and responded by reaching for the words of reconciliation’.

Herbert returned to Mull, and the Fionnphort B&B, that same day. The evening brought him the image of light which he later incorporated into the ‘Prayer’:

Po kolacji gospodyni prosiła mnie, abym postawił małą lampkę w oknie wychodzącym na Holy Iona. Taki jest zwyczaj. Nocą światła obu wysp rozmawiają ze sobą. (…) Nie wiadomo, co przyniesie przyszłość i jak długo trwać będzie rozdarcie świata. Ale dopóki w jedną bodaj noc roku światła tej ziemi będą się pozdrawiały, niecała chyba nadzieja jest pogrzebana.

After supper the landlady asked me to put a small lamp in the window overlooking Holy Iona. That is the custom. At night the lights of both islands talk to each other. (…) It is not known what the future will bring and how long it might be until the world is torn apart, but as long as one night of the year, the lights of this land will offer greetings, hope is not buried.’

*

My thanks to Robin Connelly, Grażyna Fremi, Michał Kuźmiński, Basia Macmillan and Robert Macmillan for their help in sourcing and translating material on Herbert’s trip. As well as the books mentioned above, online there is, in Polish, a useful article from 2007 by Piotr Toczynski about Herbert and Iona, and a recording of Herberttalking about Scotland (scroll down to the heading ‘Szkocja’).

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A Morning with Żanna Słoniowska

Members of Zielony Balonik were delighted to meet with Żanna Słoniowska, the author of The House with the Stained-Glass Window at the Lighthouse Bookshop in Edinburgh on May 26th at an event hosted by Kasia Kokowska of Word Polishers and supported by the Polish Consul General in Edinburgh. 

From left to right:
Grazyna Fremi, Zanna Sloniowska, Krystyna Szumelukowa, Jenny Robertson

Żanna explained that her first novel was the culmination of a long process of living the first part of her life and thinking of its meanings in the embrace of the character of  her home city, Lviv, as it is now known and located in Western Ukraine. The human characters in her story  explore how four generations of women in the same family, living in one house, reflect the multiple identities, inherited or thrust upon them, as a result of geopolitical upheavals including war itself, imposed by external forces or generated from within through cultural conflict. 

Her book was written in Polish and expertly translated in fastidious detail by Antonia Lloyd-Jones. Żanna’s  multi-language skills (Polish, Ukrainian, Russian and English) demonstrate her own internationalism and her desires for cross cultural links to be expressed in freedom of thought and movement. Żanna’s book adds to the revelation of the role that the city of Lviv has played in the history of the borderlands of eastern Europe, and how for too long it became almost invisible in the aftermath of the Second World War.

 

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The Last Family

The Last Family DVD was sitting on my bookshelf since my last visit to Warsaw. I have never liked Beksinski’s paintings, but was keen to see the film about him and his family; he was a well-known painter with quite a macabre style.

Directed in 2016 by Jan P. Matuszyński, it is a portrayal of a successful artist’s life in Warsaw before all the changes. Tomek moved from Sanok, a small town, into a high rise block on the same housing estate as his parents, who lived there with both grandmothers. He is quite depressive and disruptive individual. Fluent in English, he is passionate about the new British music and develops his own late night radio programme, to which my brother listened in the 1970’s. His suicidal tendencies are a constant worry to his family.

Continue reading “The Last Family”

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Wiesław Myśliwski in Strzebrzeszyn

The Strzebrzeszyn ‘Capital of Polish’ festival, now in its third year, has just created and awarded the first Man of Word accolade to none other than Wiesław Myśliwski, whose A Treatise on Shelling Beans we discussed a few months ago.

In his word of thanks, Myśliwski suggested Jan Brzechwa, the author of the delightful and wicked Chrząszcz, as his successor for the award. There is already a statue of a cricket (świerszcz, or chrząszcz) in Strzebrzeszyn but. according to Myśliwski, it’s high time the poet got one as well, if only for popularising the town as our own Shibboleth. 

Myśliwski, who is currently finishing Ucho Igielne (Eye of the Needle) which by his own admission he may never submit for publication, was astonished to be described by the literary critic Piotr Biłos as an erotic writer. He eventually agreed. He also admitted that Biłos has discovered whole new worlds in his novels which he, Myśliwski, had no idea he had created. 

One of the points raised during the festival was the apparent disappearance of the vocative from the language of polite debate. Used correctly, this case shows respect for the interlocutor and promotes a civilised exchange of ideas. Unfortunately, these days it is used mainly to hurl abuse at (perceived) political enemies, i.e. anyone who does not support the ruling party.  

The festival took place in Strzebrzeszyn, 6-12 August. Other eminent guests included Hanna Krall, Dorota Masłowska, Szczepan Twardoch, Wit Szostak, Marcin Podolec, Urszula Kozioł and Rev. Adam Boniecki.

Ewa Sharwood Smith,  Wyborcza, 10 August 2017

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EIBF Miedzianka / Kupferberg

On the 13 August Philip Springer – the author, and Sean Gasper Bye – the translator of History of a Disappearance, appeared at EIBF. The translator was in the audience and signed the books, along with the author, after the talk. It was interesting to hear from Springer about his way of working and how he got inspired to write this story. Since it was published in Poland in 2011 he had written 6 other books! Springer is interested in interpretations of events, how myths  and different versions grow around difficult times and happenings. According to Springer, these mysteries and sometimes lays, are more reveling about the social history than facts alone.

Bye’s speciality is translation of non-fiction. In addition to Polish he also translates from Russian and French. He is American of Polish parentage on his mother side, and lives in New York. Bye read this book shortly after it was published and loved it so much that he kept mentioning it to various publishers and eventually, on a publishers trip to Krakow, it was taken up by Restless Books from Brooklin NY, which seeks  ‘extraordinary international literature that feeds our restlessness: our curiosity about the world, passion for other cultures and languages, and eagerness to explore beyond the confines of the familiar.’

The power of literature seem to be putting Miedzianka back on the map. A new brewery has been opened up by a young couple from Wrocław and a cafe / bookshop and art gallery is built by a hipster from Warsaw. So in addition to reading Springer’s book, Miedzianka or Kupferberg is a must destination on our next visit to Silesia!

Grażyna Fremi

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